crafting essential oil – the Books – Producing Essential Oils & Hydrosols

Crafting essential oil – the Books – Producing Essential Oils & Hydrosols

Bettina Malle, Helge Schmickl
Publisher: Spikehorn Press U.S.A., © 2015
132 pages, hardcover, full-color photographs & illustrations
ISBN: 978-1-943015-00-9
Table of contents
Bettina Malle, Helge Schmickl
Verlag Die Werkstatt
5. Auflage 2014
164 Seiten, Hardcover, durchgehend farbig bebildert
ISBN: 978-3-89533-552-5

Dr. Bettina Malle - crafting essential oil – the Books – Producing Essential Oils & Hydrosols

Dr. Bettina Malle

Dr. Helge Schmickl - crafting essential oil – the Books – Producing Essential Oils & Hydrosols

Dr. Helge Schmickl

Bettina Malle and Helge Schmickl graduated from the Vienna University of Technology in 1991 with a master of science in chemical engineering and received doctorates in technical sciences in 1993. Each earned a bachelor of business administration degree from the Graduate School of Business Administration Zurich while designing, engineering, and commissioning industrial plants and managing research and development projects. Thereafter they worked as technical and business consultants until 1998.

Malle and Schmickl believe it should be possible for everyone to produce exquisite spirits with fruit and herbs right from the garden. In 1998, they developed their first still, designed to maximize the flavor of alcoholic distillates. That same year, they launched their first webpage and online store and began to host small-scale distilling workshops. They published the results and conclusions of their experiments as well as detailed instructions and many recipes for crafting distilled spirits in their 2003 book Schnapsbrennen als Hobby (The Artisan’s Guide to Crafting Distilled Spirits). It became the standard reference book for home distillers in German-spoken countries and is now in its eleventh Edition.

In the meantime they designed and constructed an optimized still for producing essential oils and hydrosols on a small scale. Due to its special designed condenser and adapted shape, the still makes it possible to obtain plenty of oil and intense hydrosols with only small amounts of base material. The two have hosted essential oil workshops and an online store since 2002 and published the reference book Ätherische Öle selbst herstellen (The Essential Oils Maker’s Handbook) in 2005. The book is now in its sixth edition, and Malle and Schmickl’s still is the preferred device among small-scale users in the fields of phyto-aromatherapy and herbology throughout the German-speaking region. It is widely used in many other courses, workshops, and seminaries as well as in research institutes, universities, colleges, and other educational Services.

In 2008 Schmickl and Malle engineered and constructed a small-scale, modified vinegar generator that is a fixed-bed reactor with immobilized vinegar bacteria. The construction enables the use of miscellaneous packing materials, especially fruit, herbs, and spices, to improve or change the taste of the resulting vinegar. Additionally they developed a method to analyze the residual alcohol content in vinegar, which is simple, cheap, and accurate enough to determine a concentration of 0.1 percent. Their book Essig herstellen als Hobby (The Artisanal Vinegar Maker’s Handbook) was published in 2010, they have hosted vinegar workshops and their vinegar webpage with online store since 2011.

Bettina and Helge have been married since 2002. That same year they moved to Klagenfurt, Carinthia (Austria), where they host their seminars and conduct research and developments in fermenting and distilling. They have two children.


Extracting, Distilling, and Enjoying Plant Essences & Hydrosols: With their pleasing scents and uses in natural remedies, essential oils are more in demand now than ever. Unfortunately, modern production methods and unscrupulous labeling practices make it extremely difficult for consumers to know whether an oil is genuine or artificial, and increasingly the only way to be certain that your essential oils are free from chemical additives is to make them yourself.

Producing your own essential oils and hydrosols in small quantities is easier than you might think, especially with the guidance of Austrian master distillers Helge Schmickl and Bettina Malle. Translated from its original German, The Essential Oil Maker’s Handbook has been revised and updated to include information on hydrosols, the aromatic water once considered a mere by-product but now recognized as a valuable substance in itself. Learn how to make your own shower gels and creams using essential oils that you created yourself out of materials from your garden and pantry, without chemical additives.

The authors provide guidance, based on data from their own experiences, on the harvesting, processing, and use of 130 indigenous and exotic plants as well as the necessary equipment for oil extraction. This guide covers in detail:

  • Effective procedures
  • Necessary equipment
  • Suitable plants
  • Practical uses for your oils
  • Tips and tricks

Including about 40 base recipes for personal care products—from bathing additives to facial and body care to perfume—this book provides a solid foundation for both beginners and professionals. This detailed and authoritative reference is indispensable in appreciating the production and wide range of applications of essential oils.

Table of contents:
    Preface to the English-Language Edition
    Preface to the First Edition
  1. Historical Overview
  2. Basics
    • What are essential oils and hydrosols?
      Essential oils, Hydrosols, Extracts, Aqueous extracts, Alcoholic or oily extracts
    • Uses
      Aroma baths, Flavoring, Skin care, Fragrant oil burners, Hair care, Internal uses, Body and massage oils, Liqueurs, Perfumes
    • Extraction methods
      Steam distillation, Fractional distillation, Co-distillation, Cold pressing, Solvent extraction, Enfleurage, Maceration/Infusion, Resinoid process, Carbon dioxide extraction
    • Checking the quality
  3. Making Your Own Oil, Step by Step
    • Steam distillation
      The principle, Stills, Building your own still, Tea kettle, Pressure cooker, Wok still, Classic still with a lyne arm, Classic still with a vertical condenser, Glass still, Buying a still, Small stills, Large stills
      Preparing the plants
      Harvest: Roses and jasmine, Lavender, Herbs, Citrus fruits, Seeds, Branches
      Cutting up the plants: Citrus fruits, Spice seeds, Dried herbs, Fresh herbs, Juniper berries, Bark, Petals, Conifers
      The distillation process
      Double distillation: First distillation, Second distillation
    • Separating the hydrosol and the oil
      Syringe: Oils lighter than water, Oils heavier than water
      Separatory funnel: Oils lighter than water, Oils heavier than water
      Automatic oil separator
      Florentine flask or essencier
    • Calculating the yield
    • Cold pressing
    • Maceration
    • Enfleurage
    • Storing oils
      Excessively high and low temperatures
  4. Distillable Materials
    • Types of plants, specific instructions for distillation
      Allspice / pimento, Angelica, Anise, star anise, Balm, lemon balm, bee balm, Balsam poplar, Basil, Bay laurel, Bay rum tree / West Indian bay tree, Benzoin, Bergamot, Birch Bitter orange / neroli, Bitter orange / petitgrain, Broom, Cajuput, Camphor, Caraway, Cumin, Cardamom, Cedar, Celery, Chamomile, Cilantro, Cinnamon, Citronella, Clary sage, Clementine, Clove, Cotton lavender, Cypress, Damiana, Davana, Dill, Elecampane, Eucalyptus, Fennel, Fir, Douglas, Frankincense, Garlic, Geranium, storksbill, pelargonium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Ground ivy, Hemp, Hogweed, Hops, Hyssop, Iris, Jasmine, Juniper, Larch, Lavender and lavandin, Lemon, Lemon verbena, Lemongrass, Lime, Lovage, Marigold, Marjoram, Mint: spearmint, pennyroyal, field mint, peppermint, Mountain pine, Mugwort, Myrrh, Myrtle, Narcissus, Nutmeg, Oakmoss, Orange, Oregano, Palmarosa, Palo santo, Parsley, Patchouli, Pepper, Peppermint, Queen Anne’s Lace (Wild Carrot), Ramson, Rockrose, Rose, Rosemary, Rosewood, Rue, Sage, Sandalwood, amyris, Savory, Scotch pine, Spike lavender, Spikenard, Spruce, Norway spruce, St. John’s wort, Strawflower, immortelle, everlasting, Swiss pine, Tangerine, Tansy, Tarragon, Tea tree, Thuja, Thyme, wild thyme / creeping thyme, Tuberose, night hyacinth, Turmeric, Valerian, Alpine valerian, spikenard, Vetiver, Violet, Wattle, mimosa, Wormwood, mugwort, Yarrow, Yellow jade orchid blossoms, champaca, Joy, Ylang-ylang / cananga
    • Overview: Plants and their effects
  5. Using Your Oils
    • Base substances and materials
      Neutral carrier oils: Almond oil, Avocado oil, Corn oil, Jojoba oil, Macadamia oil, Olive oil, Sesame oil, Soy oil, Sunflower oil, Walnut oil
      Additives: Alcohol, Beeswax, Hydrosol, Lanolin (wool fat), Soap flakes, Soft soap
      Shaking the hydrosol
    • Safety precautions
    • Bath additives
      Full bath additive, Bath salts, Shower gel, Footbath additive
    • Facial and body care
      Milky cleanser, Cleansing oil, Makeup remover, Exfoliant (face scrub), Face packs, Facial cleanser, Facial cream, Night cream, Massage oil, Facial oil, Sunscreen oil, Deodorant, Mouthwash
    • Shaving
      Shaving soap, Aftershave
    • Hair care
      Shampoo, Hair tonic (conditioner)
    • Soap
    • Perfume
    • Liqueurs
      Absinthe flavor (Swiss style I), Absinthe flavor (Swiss style II), Anise I, Anise II, Caraway, Caraway, Breslau style, Caraway, Danzig style, Carmelite style, Cherry, Jenever style, Krambambula, Lemon, Peppermint
      Crèmes: Anise, Anisette, Bitter liqueur, Caraway liqueur (Magdeburg style), Danziger Goldwasser style, Eisenbahn (railroad) liqueur, Peppermint liqueur I, Peppermint liqueur II, Raspberry, Rose liqueur
    • Miscellaneous
      Black tea, Sauna infusions, Fragrant oil burners, Potpourri, Air freshener sprays, Gauze pads, Inhalant, Ironing water, Laundry
  6. Frequently Asked Questions
  7. Afterword
  8. Harvest Calendar
  9. Index
    About the Authors


Der Trend zum bewussten Umgang mit Körper und Geist lässt immer mehr Menschen zu natürlichen Heil- und Duftstoffen greifen. Eine bedeutende Rolle kommt dabei den ätherischen Ölen zu. So mancher möchte sein Öl selbst herstellen mit selbst ausgesuchten Rohstoffen, ohne chemische Zusätze und mit individueller Duftnote. Allerdings gab es bislang keinen Ratgeber, der den Herstellungsprozess für Laien detailliert beschreibt. Das vorliegende Buch schließt diese Lücke. Fachkundig informieren die Autoren über die Verwendung heimischer und exotischer Pflanzen und die notwendigen Gerätschaften zur Ölgewinnung. Anschaulich werden die entsprechenden Verfahren erläutert und die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten als Parfüm, Creme oder Shampoo vorgestellt.

  • Notwendige Gerätschaften
  • Vorbereitung der Pflanzen
  • Durchführung der Wasserdampfdestillation
  • Durchführung der Enfleurage
  • Durchführung der Kaltpressung
  • Pflanzenkatalog
  • Rezepte für Cremes, Seifen, Parfum...

Das vorliegende Buch ist nicht nur für Anfänger interessant, auch passionierte Hersteller von ätherischen Ölen werden hier viele Neuheiten und Tipps finden.

  1. Kleiner Ausflug in die Geschichte
  2. Grundlagen
    Was sind ätherische Öle?; Anwendungsmöglichkeiten; Arten der Gewinnung; Wasserdampfdestillation; Fraktionierte Destillation; Kaltpressung; Extraktionsverfahren; Lösemittelextraktion; Enfleurage; Mazeration; Resinoid-Herstellung; Kohlendioxidextraktion; Qualitätsprüfung
  3. Schritt für Schritt zum eigenen Öl
    Wasserdampfdestillation; Das Prinzip; Die Destillen; Konstruktion einer eigenen Destille; Teekessel; Druckkochtopf; Wok-Destille; Klassische Destille mit Geistrohr; Klassische Destille mit senkrechter Kühlung; Destille aus Glas; Kauf einer Anlage; Großanlagen; Vorbereitung der Pflanzen; Ernte; Zerkleinern der Pflanzen; Der Destillationsvorgang; Befüllen; Destillieren; Zweifache Destillation; Kaltpressung; Enfleurage; Trennung Hydrolat-Öl und Ausbeutenberechnung; Spritze; Pipette; Scheidetrichter; Automatischer Ölabscheider; Florentinervase; Sauberkeit; Ausbeuteberechnung; Aufbewahrung der Öle
  4. Rohstoffe zum Destillieren
    Beschreibung inkl. Ausbeute, Erntezeitpunkt, welche Pflanzenteile Öl enthalten und deren optimale Behandlung: Alant, Angelika, Anis, Baldrian, Bärlauch, Basilikum, Bay, Beifuß, Benzoe Siam, Bergamotte, Birke, Bohnenkraut, Cajeput, Cistrose, Clementine, Davana, Dill, Dost, Eichenmoos, Estragon, Eukalyptus, Fenchel, Fichte, Föhre, Geranie, Gewürznelke, Ginster, Grapefruit, Gundelrebe, Hanf, Heiligenkraut, Hopfen, Ingwer, Iris, Jasmin, Johanniskraut, Kamille, Kampfer, Kardamom, Karotte, Kiefer, Knoblauch, Koriander, Kümmel, Kurkuma, Lärche, Latschenkiefer, Lavadin, Lavendel, Liebstöckel, Limette, Lorbeer, Magnolie, Majoran, Mandarine, Melisse, Mimose, Minze, Muskatellersalbei, Muskatnuß, Myrre, Myrte, Narde, Narzisse, Neroli, Orange, Oregano, Palmarosa, Palo Santo, Patschuli, Petersilie, Petitgrain, Pfeffer, Piment, Rainfarn, Ringelblume, Rose, Rosenholz, Rosmarin, Salbei, Sandelholz, Schafgarbe, Sellerie, Speik, Speiklavendel, Strohblume, Tagetes, Tanne, Teebaum, Thuja, Thymian, Tuberose, Veilchen, Vetiver, Wacholder, Weihrauch, Wermut, Wiesenbärenklau, Ylang-Ylang, Ysop, Zeder, Zimt, Zitrone, Zitronengras, Zitronenverbene, Zypresse; Überblick
  5. Anwendung der Öle
    Grundsubstanzen und Materialien; Sicherheitshinweise; Badezusätze; Gesichts- und Körperpflege; Haarpflege; Rasur; Seife; Parfum; Verschiedenes
  6. Nachgefragt
  7. Epilog
  8. Erntekalender
  9. Stichwortverzeichnis

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